Anning City, Yunnan Province, China is an important area of economic development and ecological civilization construction in central Yunnan on the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. This study investigated the contents and enrichment degrees of elements including heavy metals in the surface soil samples that were systematically collected in the Anning area from 2018 to 2020. Then, this study assessed the ecological risks of heavy metals in the soil using the geoaccumulation index and the assessment indices of potential ecological risks and analyzed the sources of heavy metals using the methods of the Pearson correlation and principal component analysis. The results show that heavy metals Cr, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, Hg, and radioactive element U in the soil in the study area have significantly higher contents than corresponding background values of soil in Yunnan Province and show high-degree variation and uneven spatial distribution. Moreover, Cr has the highest accumulation degree of geological anomalies, elements As, Cd, and Hg have high potential ecological risks, and ecological risks are mainly concentrated in the phosphate mining area and the vicinity of steel plants and chemical plants in the Tanglangchuan basin. In terms of sources, Cr, Ni, and Cu may mainly originate from soil parent materials; areas with high Cd, Pb, Zn, and As contents are significantly affected by human activities, and Hg may have a composite pollution source. These results will provide a scientific basis for understanding the sources of heavy metals in soil in Anning City and for the management and protection of local land resources.
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