Grounded-source transient electromagnetic method (TEM) has many advantages such as deep exploration, flexible arrangement in rough terrain and high working efficiency. Recently it has got much attention and a series of new methods are available, ranging from surface to airborne and borehole method. In this paper, the authors review the research history of long-offset TEM (LOTEM), short-offset TEM (SOTEM), multi-channel TEM(MTEM), grounded-source semi-airborne TEM and grounded-source surface to borehole TEM, and summarize their research status in forward modeling, system design, inversion, imaging and field working. The results show that, as a well-developed grounded-source TEM, LOTEM has accumulated many research achievements. Although some progress has been made, the researches on other grounded-source TEMs are still in a primary stage and still need further improvement. Valuable research results in LOTEM, for example, noise suppression technology, high dimensional inversion and point interpretation, can be introduced to these newly developed electromagnetic methods, which can help provide solutions for high working efficiency and high resolution deep exploration.
张莹莹. 电性源瞬变电磁法综述[J]. 物探与化探, 2021, 45(4): 809-823.
ZHANG Ying-Ying. Review on the study of grounded-source transient electromagnetic method. Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration, 2021, 45(4): 809-823.
Xue G Q, Li X, Di Q Y. The progress of TEM in theory and application[J]. Progress in Geophysics, 2007,22(4):1195-1200.
朴化荣. 电磁测深法原理[M]. 北京: 地质出版社, 1990.
Piao H R. Principles of electromagnetic sounding[M]. Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1990.
刘天佑. 地球物理勘探概论[M]. 北京: 地质出版社, 2007.
Liu T Y. Introduction to geophysical exploration[M]. Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 2007.
Keller G V, Pritchard J I, Jacobson J J, et al. Megasource time-domain electromagnetic sounding methods[J]. Geophysics, 1984,49:993-1009.
Vozoff K, Moss D, LeBrocq K L, et al. LOTEM electric field measurements for mapping resistive horizons in petroleum exploration[J]. Exploration Geophysics, 1985,16(3):309-312.
Strack K, Luschen E, Kotz A W. Long-offset transient electromagnetic(LOTEM) depth soundings applied to crustal studies in the Black Forest and Swabian Alb,Federal Republic of Germany[J]. Geophysics, 1990,55(7):834-842.
Strack M. LOTEM case histories in frontier areas of hydrocarbon exploration in Asia[C]// San Francisco: 60th Annual International Meeting, Expanded Abstracts with Biographies,Technical Program, 1999.
Strack K, Hanstein T, Stoyer C H, et al. Time domain controlled source electromagnetics for hydrocarbon applications[M]. The Earth’s Magnetic Interior.Netherlands:Springer, 2011.
Skokan C K, Andersen H T. Deep long-offset transient electromagnetic surveys for crustal studies in the USA[J]. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 1991,66:39-50.
Muller M, Hordt A, Neubauer F M. Electromagnetic technique’s success at Vesuvius points to use in forecasting eruptions[J]. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 1999,80(35):393-401.
Muller M, Hordt A, Neubauer F M. Internal structure of Mount Merapi, Indonesia,derived from long-offset transient electromagnetic data[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2002,107(B9):2187.
Yan L J, Hu W B, Chen Q L, et al. Trial with LOTEM to investigate detailed geological structure in the area covered with carbonatite[J]. Seismology and Geology, 2001,23(2):271-276.
Stephan A, Schniggenfittig H, Strack K. Long-offset transient EM sounding north of the Rhine-Ruhr coal district Germany[J]. Geophysical Prospecting, 2006,39(4):505-525.
Kafri U, Goldman M, Lyakhovsky V, et al. The configuration of the fresh-saline groundwater interface within the regional Judea Group carbon aquifer in northern Israel between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea base levels as delineated by deep geoelectromagnetic soundings[J]. Journal of Hydrology, 2007,344:123-134.
Ceia M, Carrasquilla A, Sato H K, et al. Long offset transient electromagnetic(LOTEM)for monitoring fluid injection in petroleum reservoirs—Preliminary results of Fazenda Alvorada Field(Brazil)[C]// Rio de Janeiro,Brazil: 10th International Congress of the Brazilian Geophysical Society, 2007.
Shao M, Qiu N, He Z X. Effect of wavelet threshold de-noising on long-offset transient electromagnetic signal[J]. Chinese Journal of Engineering Geophysics, 2008,5(1):70-74.
Cardador M H, Cuevas A, Watanabe H, et al. Experimental evaluation of hydrocarbon detection with the Long-Offset Time-Domain Electromagnetic Method in the Cretaceous carbonates of the Tampico-Misantla basin,mexico[J]. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 2003,52(2):103-122.
Tang X G, Hu W B, Yan L J. Graben topographic effects to the long offset transient electromagnetic responses[J]. Chinese Journal of Engineering Geophysics, 2004,1(4):313-317.
Tang X G, Hu W B, Yan L J. Topographic effects on long offset transient electromagnetic response[J]. Applied Geophysics, 2011,8(4):277-284.
Hoheisel A, Hordt A, Hanstein T. The influence of induced polarization on long-offset transient electromagnetic data[J]. Geophysical Prospecting, 2010,52(5):417-426.
Hordt A, Druskin V, Knizhnerman L, et al. Interpretation of 3-D effects in long-offset transient electromagnetic(LOTEM) soundings in Munsterland area/Germany[J]. Geophysics, 1992,57:1127-1137.
Hordt A, Jodicke H, Strack K M, et al. Inversion of long-offset TEM soundings near the borehole Munsterland 1,Germany, and comparison with MT measurements[J]. Geophysical Journal International, 1992,108(3):930-940.
Yan L J, Hu W B, Chen Q L, et al. The estimation and fast inversion of all-time apparent resistivities in long-offset transient electromagnetic sounding[J]. Oil Geophysical Prospecting, 1999,34(5):532-538.
Commer M, Helwig S, Hordt A, et al. Interpretation of long-offset transient electromagnetic data from Mount Merapi, Indonesia,using a three-dimensional optimization approach[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2004,110(B3):B03207.
Commer M, Helwig S L, Hordt A, et al. New results on the resistivity structure of Merapi Volcano(Indonesia),derived from three-dimensional restricted inversion of long-offset transient electromagnetic data[J]. Geophysical Journal International, 2006,167(3):1172-1187.
Hordt A, Dautel S, Tezkan B, et al. Interpretation of long-offset transient electromagnetic data form the Odenwald area,Germany, using two-dimensional modeling[J]. Geophysical Journal International, 2000,140(3):577-586.
Khan M Y, Xue G Q, Chen W Y, et al. Analysis of Long-offset Transient Electromagnetic (LOTEM) Data in Time, Frequency, and Pseudo-seismic Domain[J]. Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, 2018,23(1):15-32.
Liu Y J, Yogeshwar P, Hu X Y, et al. Effects of electrical anisotropy on long-offset transient electromagnetic data[J]. Geophysical Journal International, 2020,222(2):1074-1089.
Beer J H, Roux C L, Hanstein T H, et al. Direct current resistivity and LOTEM model for the deep structure of the northern edge for the Kaapvaal craton, South Africa[J]. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 1991,66:51-61.
Strack K M, Vozoff K. Integrating long-offset transient electromagnetics(LOTEM) with seismic in an exploration environment[J]. Geophysical Prospecting, 1996,44(6):997-1017.
Lin Z, Vozoff K, Smith G H, et al. Joint application of seismic and electromagnetic methods to coal characterisation at West Cliff Colliery,New South Wales[J]. Exploration Geophysics, 1996,27(4):205-215.
Kalscheuer T, Commer M, Helwig S L, et al. Electromagnetic evidence for an ancient avalanche caldera rim on the south flank of Mount Merapi, Indonesia[J]. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 2007,162:81-97.
Harnoon A, Adrian J, Bergers R, et al. Joint inversion of long-offset and central-loop transient electromagnetic data: Application to a mud volcano exploration in Perekishkul, Azerbaijan[J]. European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers, Geophysical Prospecting, 2014: 1-17.
涂君. 大电磁测深法与长偏移距瞬变电磁法联合反演方法研究[D]. 成都:成都理工大学, 2019.
Tu J. Research on the joint inversion of magnetotelluric sounding and long offset transient electromagnetic methods[D]. Chengdu:Chengdu University of Technology, 2019.
Ziolkowski A M. Short-offset transient electromagnetic geophysical surveying[P]. United State Patent Application Publication, 2010.
Li G Q, Cheng J L, Gao F, et al. Research on detecting strata water-bearing property in deep coal mining area using short-offset transient electromagnetic method[J]. China Mining Magazine, 2013,22(10):131-134.
Xue G Q, Gelius L J, Sakyi P A, et al. Discovery of a hidden BIF deposit in Anhui province, China by integrated geological and geophysical investigations[J]. Ore Geology Reviews, 2014,63:470-477.
Chen W Y, Xue G Q, Younis K M, et al. Application of short -offset TEM (SOTEM) technique in mapping water-enriched zones of coal stratum, an example from East China[J]. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 2015,172:1643-1651.
Zhou N N, Xue G Q, Chen W Y, et al. Large-depth Hydro-geological detection in the North China-type coal field through Short-offset Grounded-wire TEM[J]. Environmental Earth Sciences, 2015,74(3):2393-2404.
Zhou N N, Xue G Q, Hou D Y, et al. Short-offset grounded-wire TEM method for efficient detection of mined-out areas in vegetation-covered mountainous coalfields[J]. Exploration Geophysics, 2017,48(4):374-382.
Chen D L, Chen W Y, Guo P, et al. The application of SOTEM method to populated areas: A case study of Fangzi coal mine goaf[J]. Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration, 2020,44(5):1226-1232.
Xue G Q, Zhang L B, Hou D Y, et al. Integrated geological and geophysical investigations for the discovery of deeply buried gold-polymetallic deposits in China[J]. Geological Journal, 2019,55(1):1771-1780.
Chang J H, Xue G Q. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of diffusion law of short-offset grounded-wire transient electromagnetic field[J]. Journal of Earth Sciences and Environment, 2020,42(6):711-721.
Xue J J, Chen W Y, Wang H Y. Analysis and application of the detection depth of electrical source Short-offset TEM[J]. Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration, 2017,41(2):381-384.
Zhou N N, Xue G Q, Hou D Y, et al. An investigation of the effect of source geometry on grounded-wire TEM surveying with horizontal electric field[J]. Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, 2018,23(1):143-151.
Zhou N N, Hou D Y, Xue G Q. Effects of shadow and source overprint on grounded-wire transient electromagnetic response[J]. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 2018,15:1169-1173.
Zhou N N, Xue G Q. Minimum depth of investigation for grounded-wire TEM due to self-transients[J]. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 2018,152:203-207.
Zhou N N, Xue G Q, Li H, et al. Investigation of axial electric field measurement with grounded-wire TEM surveys[J]. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 2018,175:365-373.
Hou D Y, Xue G Q, Zhou N N, et al. Exploration of deep magnetite deposit under thick and conductive overburden with Ex component of SOTEM: a case study in China[J]. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 2019,176:857-871.
Chen W, Xue G Q, Chen W Y, et al. Multi-component response of SOTEM with IP effect[J]. Progress in Geophysics, 2019,34(5):1859-1865.
Khan M Y, Xue G Q, Chen W Y. Investigation of groundwater in-rush zone using petrophysical logs and short-offset transient electromagnetic (SOTEM) data[J]. Journal of Environmental & Engineering Geophysics, 2020,25(3):433-437.
Zhang W W, Di Q Y, Lei D, et al. Multi-channel transient electromagnetic method:a new geophysical method and its application in exploring metallic ore deposits[J]. Gold Science and Technology, 2018,26(1):1-8.
Ou Y T, Di Q Y, Xue G Q, et al. Identifying deep ore bodies using the Multi-Channel Transient Electromagnetic Method(MTEM):an example of a lead-zinc-silver mine in Inner Mongolia[J]. Chinese Journal of Geophysics, 2019,62(5):1981-1990.
Li H, Xue G Q, Zhong H S, et al. Joint inverison of CMP gathers of multi-channel transient electromagnetic data[J]. Chinese Journal of Geophysics, 2016,59(12):4439-4447.
Wright D, Ziolkowski A, Hall G. Improving signal-to-noise ratio using pseudo random binary sequences in multi-transient electromagnetic(MTEM) data[C]// Vienna: Proceedings of the 68th EAGA Conference and Exhibition,SPE, 2006.
Yuan Z, Zhang Y M, Zheng Q J. Anti-noise quantitative analysis of the m-sequence in the multi-transient electromagnetic method and its coding parameter optimization[J]. Oil Geophysical Prospecting, 2018,52(1):195-205.
Zhang W W, Di Q Y, Geng Q L, et al. The removal of MTEM periodic noise based on digital recursive notching[J]. Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration, 2020,44(2):278-289.
Wu X, Xue G Q, Wang S, et al. The Suppression of Powerline Noise for the time-domain electromagnetic method with coded source based on independent component analysis[J]. Journal of Environmental & Engineering Geophysics, 2019,24(4):513-523.
Wang R, Wang M Y, Di Q Y, et al. 2D FEM modeling on the multi-channel transient electromagnetic method[J]. Chinese Journal of Geophysics, 2018,61(12):5048-5095.
Di Q Y, Li H, Xue G Q, et al. Pseudo-2D Trans-dimensional Bayesian inversion of the full waveform TEM response from PRBS source[J]. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 2020,99:1-9.
Hobbs B, Ziolkowski A, Wright D. Multi-Transient Electromagnetics(MTEM)-controlled source equipment for subsurface resistitivty investigation[C]// 18th IAGA WG 1.2 Workshop on Electromagnetic Induction in the Earth,EI Vendrell Spain, 2006: 17-23.
张盛泉. 大功率电法发送机中全波形记录技术研究[D]. 北京:中国地质大学(北京), 2015.
Zhang S Q. Development of full-waveform recording technology in high-power electrical transmitter[D]. Beijing:China University of Geosciences, 2015.
Wang X H, Zhang Y M, Liu W. Key technology study of power supply for multi-transient electromagnetic method transmitter[J]. Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University, 2019,53(3):355-365.
Nabighian N M. Electromagnetic methods in applied geophysics-theory (volume 1)[M]. Tulsa OK: Society of Exploration, 1988.
Mogi T, Tanaka Y, Kusunoki K, et al. Development of grounded electrical source airborne EM(GREATEM)[J]. Exploration Geophysics, 1998,29:61-64.
Mogi T, Kusunoki K, Kaieda H, et al. Grounded electrical-source airborne transient electromagnetic (GREATEM) survey of mount Bandai, north-eastern Japan[J]. Exploration Geophysics, 2009,40:1-7.
Allah S A, Ito H, Mogi T, et al. Three-dimensional resistivity characterization of a coastal area: application of grounded electrical-source airborne transient electromagnetic (GREATEM) survey data from Kujukuri beach, Japan[J]. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 2013,99(3):1-11.
Ito H, Mogi T, Jomori A, et al. Further investigation of underground resistivity structures in coastal areas using grounded-source airborne electromagnetics[J]. Earth Planets & Space, 2011,63(8):e9-e12.
Ito H, Kaieda H, Mogi T, et al. Grounded electrical-source airborne transient electromagnetics (GREATEM) survey of Aso Volcano, Japan[J]. Exploration Geophysics, 2013,44:A-D
Ji Y J, Wang Y, Xu J, et al. Development and application of the grounded long wire source airborne electromagnetic exploration system based on unmanned airship[J]. Chinese Journal of Geophysics, 2013,56(11):3640-3650.
Wang Y, Ji Y J, Li S Y, et al. A wavelet-based baseline drift correction method for grounded electrical source airborne transient electromagnetic signals[J]. Exploration Geophysics, 2013,44:229-237.
Fang T, Zhang J J, Fu C Q, et al. Using ground-airborne transient electromagnetic system on unmanned aerial vehicle detecting Yeshan underground tunnels[J]. Progress in Geophysics, 2015,30(5):2366-2372.
刘金鹏. 电性源地空瞬变电磁法在采空区探测中的应用[D]. 西安:长安大学, 2018.
Liu J P. The application of ground-airborne transient electromagnetic method with electric source in the gobs detection[D]. Xi’an: Chang’an University, 2018.
Wang Z R, Cheng J L, Song L B, et al. Application of Grounded-airborne time domain electromagnetic system in goaf exploration of coal mine in Shenmu area of Shaanxi,China[J]. Journal of Earth Sciences and Environment, 2020,42(6):776-783.
Xie X G, Wei L S, Wang X B, et al. Application of semi-airborne TEM to structure exploration in the old channels[J]. Progress in Geophysics, 2021, http://kns.cnki.net/kcms/detail/11.2982.P.20210209.1546.021.html.
Mao X X, Mao L F, Yang C, et al. Research on wavelet denoising method for semi-airborne transient electromagnetic data[J]. Progress in Geophysics, 2020, http://kns.cnki.net/kcms/detail/11.2982.P.20201223.1126.006.html.
阳贵红. 时域电性源地-空电磁探测数据预处理研究[D]. 长春:吉林大学, 2012.
Yang G H. Data preprocessing research on electrical-source of time domain ground-airborne electromagnetic[D]. Changchun: Jilin University, 2012.
Zhang Y Y. Study on multi-component interpretation and full field apparent resistivity definition of semi-airborne transient electromagnetic method with electrical dipole on the surface[D]. Xi’an: Chang’an University, 2013.
Zhang Y Y, Li X, Yao W H, et al. Multi-component full field apparent resistivity definition of multi-source ground-airborne transient electromagnetic method with galvanic sources[J]. Chinese Journal of Geophysics, 2015,58(8):2745-2758.
吕仁斌. 半航空瞬变电磁数据处理及快速成像方法研究[D]. 成都:成都理工大学, 2017.
Lyu R B. Research on rapid simulation and data processing of semi-aerial transient electromagnetic[D]. Chengdu:Chengdu University of Technology, 2017.
Yi G C, Wang S X, Wang X B, et al. Study on the detection capability of low resistivity thin layer by semi-aviation transient electromagnetic method based on all-time apparent resistivity[J]. Progress in Geophysics, 2021, http://kns.cnki.net/kcms/detail/11.2982.p.20210208.1323.080.html.
Wang S X, Yi G C, Wang X B, et al. Research on the semi-airborne transient electromagnetic conductivity depth rapid imaging method based on segmented binary search algorithm[J]. Progress in Geophysics, 2021, http://kns.cnki.net/kcms/detail/11.2982.P.20201223.1447.022.html.
Zhang P, Yu X D, Xu Y, et al. An adaptive regularized inversion of 1D semi-airborne time-domain electromagnetic data[J]. Computing Techniques for Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration, 2017,39(1):1-8.
Abdallah S, Mogi T, Kim H J. Three-dimensional inversion of GREATEM data:application to GREATEM survey data from Kujukuri Beach,Japan[J]. Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 2017,99:1-7.