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物探与化探  2022, Vol. 46 Issue (4): 1030-1036    DOI: 10.11720/wtyht.2022.1470
  生态地质调查 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
广西茅尾海入海河口表层沉积物重金属分布及风险评价
阎琨1,2(), 庞国涛1, 李伟1, 毛方松1
1.中国地质调查局 烟台海岸带地质调查中心,山东 烟台 264000
2.中国地质大学(武汉) 环境学院,湖北 武汉 430000
Assessing the distribution and ecological risks of heavy metals in surface sediments of the Maowei Sea estuary, Guangxi
YAN Kun1,2(), PANG Guo-Tao1, LI Wei1, MAO Fang-Song1
1. Yantai Geological Survey Center of Coastal Zone, China Geological Survey, Yantai 264000, China
2. School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences(Wuhan), Wuhan 430000, China
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摘要 

为揭示茅尾海入海河口表层沉积物中重金属分布特征及生态风险,在茅岭江、大榄江、钦江入海河口采集13件表层沉积物样品进行重金属分析。研究结果表明,茅尾海沉积物中重金属As、Cd、Cr、Cu、Hg、Pb、Zn含量平均值分别为7.78×10-6、0.14×10-6、37.6×10-6、18.9×10-6、0.004 8×10-6、22.5×10-6、54.7×10-6,均低于GB 18668—2002的一类标准。沉积物中重金属空间分布差异较大,茅尾海东部工业区和西部茅岭江附近具有较高的重金属含量。重金属污染分析表明,大部分重金属元素显示为无污染—轻度污染水平,Cr具有中等污染水平;生态风险分析显示,重金属总体处于较低潜在风险,东部工业区Hg、Cd显示出中等生态风险。通过相关性分析、聚类分析、主成分分析探讨重金属污染物来源,结果显示重金属污染主要受河流控制,Hg、As、Cd还受到临港工业区废水排放的影响。综合研究表明,茅尾海生态环境总体较好,但建议重点关注东部工业区重金属排污状况。

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关键词 茅尾海入海河口沉积物重金属风险评价    
Abstract

A total of 13 surface sediment samples were collected from estuaries of the Maoling, Dalan, and Qinjiang rivers for heavy metal analysis, aiming to study the distribution characteristics and ecological risk of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the Maowei Sea estuary. The results are as follows. The average contents of heavy metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn in Maowei Sea sediments were 7.78×10-6, 0.14×10-6, 37.6×10-6, 18.9×10-6, 0.0048×10-6, 22.5×10-6, and 54.7×10-6, respectively. They are all lower than the class-I standard specified in GB18668—2002. The heavy metals in the sediments show quite different spatial distribution, with high content of heavy metals concentrating in the industrial zone to the east of the Maowei Sea and near the Maoling River to the west of the Maowei Sea. The analysis of heavy metal pollution shows that most elements are at levels of no pollution to moderate pollution, and Cr is at a medium pollution level. As indicated by the ecological risk analysis, the heavy metals generally show potentially low potential risks, and Hg and Cd in the industrial zone to the east show moderate ecological risks. The sources of heavy metal pollutants were explored through correlation analysis, cluster analysis, and principal component analysis. The results show that heavy metal pollution is mainly controlled by rivers, and Hg, As and Cd are also affected by wastewater discharged from the port industrial zone. This comprehensive study shows that the Maowei Sea has a good ecological environment overall, but it is recommended to focus on the drainage of heavy metal pollution in the industrial zone to the west of the Maowei Sea.

Key wordsMaowei Sea    estuary    sediments    heavy metals    risk assessment
收稿日期: 2021-08-21      出版日期: 2022-08-17
ZTFLH:  X131  
基金资助:中国地质调查局地质调查项目(DD20191024);中国地质调查局地质调查项目(ZD20220604);中国地质调查局地质调查项目(ZD20220131)
作者简介: 阎琨(1988-),男,工程师,主要从事环境地质调查与评价工作。Email: 544507188@qq.com
引用本文:   
阎琨, 庞国涛, 李伟, 毛方松. 广西茅尾海入海河口表层沉积物重金属分布及风险评价[J]. 物探与化探, 2022, 46(4): 1030-1036.
YAN Kun, PANG Guo-Tao, LI Wei, MAO Fang-Song. Assessing the distribution and ecological risks of heavy metals in surface sediments of the Maowei Sea estuary, Guangxi. Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration, 2022, 46(4): 1030-1036.
链接本文:  
https://www.wutanyuhuatan.com/CN/10.11720/wtyht.2022.1470      或      https://www.wutanyuhuatan.com/CN/Y2022/V46/I4/1030
Fig.1  采样站位分布
参数 As Cd Cr Cu Hg Pb Zn 文献来源
最大值/10-6 19.8 0.45 74.3 31.7 0.12 46 123 本次工作
最小值/10-6 1.45 0.031 12.1 7.06 0.011 8.9 15.9 本次工作
平均值/10-6 7.78 0.14 37.6 18.9 0.048 22.5 54.7 本次工作
标准差/10-6 5.21 0.12 21.1 8.72 0.038 12.1 34.9 本次工作
变异系数 0.67 0.86 0.58 0.46 0.79 0.54 0.64 本次工作
国家一类标准/10-6 20 0.50 80.0 35.0 0.2 60.0 150 GB 18668—2002
1984年所测含量/10-6 12.15 0.09 17.2 27.5 66.6 李树华[17]
2010年所测含量/10-6 7.72 0.08 12.72 6.76 39.37 张丹等[4]
2011年所测含量/10-6 13.52 0.16 16.96 0.05 23.33 60.28 田海涛[3]
2013年所测含量/10-6 8.3 0.08 12.3 11.3 0.05 8.6 69.1 舒俊林等[5]
参考背景值/10-6 9.6 0.19 21.8 18.5 0.062 26.3 56.73 文献[18]
Table 1  茅尾海入海河口沉积物重金属含量
Fig.2  入海河口沉积物重金属元素分布
Igeo 级数 污染程度 比例/%
As Cd Cr Cu Hg Pb Zn
<0 0 无污染 84.7 84.7 53.8 76.9 76.9 92.3 76.9
0<I≤1 1 轻度污染 15.3 15.3 30.8 23.1 23.1 7.7 23.1
1<I≤2 2 偏中度污染 0 0 15.4 0 0 0 0
2<I≤3 3 中度污染 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
最大值 0.11 0.66 1.18 0.19 0.37 0.22 0.53
Igeo 最小值 -3.31 -3.20 -1.43 -1.97 -3.22 -2.15 -2.42
平均值 -1.20 -1.49 -0.02 -0.71 -1.45 -1.00 -0.92
Table 2  茅尾海入海河口沉积物重金属地累积指数评价结果
Fig.3  研究区重金属潜在生态指数分布
元素 Mz As Cd Cr Cu Hg Pb Zn
Mz 1
As 0.737** 1
Cd 0.621* 0.664* 1
Cr 0.731** 0.856** 0.738** 1
Cu 0.567* 0.689** 0.671* 0.897** 1
Hg 0.723** 0.866** 0.744** 0.721** 0.531 1
Pb 0.747** 0.882** 0.756** 0.978** 0.833** 0.754** 1
Zn 0.692** 0.802** 0.787** 0.985** 0.908** 0.667* 0.972** 1
Table 3  茅尾海河口沉积物中各重金属元素之间及其与中值粒径的相关系数(n=13)
Fig.4  双重聚类分析
Fig.5  各重金属元素的二维因子载荷
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