When the tunnel passes through the complex strata with bad geological development, it often encounters geological disasters such as water inrush, mud inrush, collapse and roof fall. During the construction of the tunnel, the advanced geological prediction for the adverse geological disasters such as water and mud inrush has become an important issue to ensure the construction safety. Transient electromagnetic method has been widely used in the prediction of tunnel and underground cavern construction period. However, with the increasingly complex construction environment, the application of traditional TEM is restricted by various factors. For example, in TBM construction tunnel, the traditional transient electromagnetic device form is limited by TBM machinery, and the metal components of TBM produce strong electromagnetic interference to the collection of secondary field attenuation voltage, which makes this kind of method difficult to apply to TBM construction tunnel at present. In order to overcome the difficulties encountered by TEM in TBM tunnel construction, the authors, based on previous work, attempted to put forward a type of TEM advanced detection device based on electrical source excitation and electric field component acquisition. According to the different working conditions of drilling and blasting method and TBM construction tunnel, the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method is used to simulate the distribution and response characteristics of transient electromagnetic field in front of the tunnel excited by a single electrical source. Based on the analysis of the distribution and response characteristics of transient electromagnetic field, the authors hold that the single electrical source launching device not only can be used in the tunnel construction by drilling and blasting but also has the capability of advanced prediction in the tunnel construction by TBM.
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