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物探与化探  2020, Vol. 44 Issue (2): 329-338    DOI: 10.11720/wtyht.2020.1295
  方法研究·信息处理·仪器研制 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
速度误差和地震噪声对最小二乘逆时偏移的影响分析
马振1, 孙成禹1, 彭鹏鹏2, 姚振岸3
1. 中国石油大学(华东) 地球科学与技术学院,山东 青岛 266580
2. 雅安市雨城区自然资源和规划局,四川 雅安 625000
3. 东华理工大学 地球物理与测控技术学院,江西 南昌 330013
An analysis of the influence of velocity error and seismic noise on least squares reverse-time migration
Zhen MA1, Cheng-Yu SUN1, Peng-Peng PENG2, Zhen-An YAO3
1. School of Geosciences,China University of Petroleum,Qingdao 266580,China
2. Ya'an City Yucheng District Natural Resources and Planning Bureau,Ya'an 625000,China
3. School of Geophysics and Measurement-control Technology,East China University of Technology,Nanchang 330013,China
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摘要 

随着勘探开发目标的日益精细化和复杂化,基于反演理论的最小二乘逆时偏移逐渐成为目前的发展趋势。为了使最小二乘逆时偏移更好地为油气藏的勘探开发服务,分析其不同条件下的成像效果,有助于在实际资料处理过程中指导处理人员做出适当的调整。为此,针对实际勘探过程中出现的偏移速度误差以及地震资料中存在噪声的情况,对比了最小二乘逆时偏移在不同条件下的成像效果。结果表明:在偏移速度存在系统误差的情况下,界面成像深度会出现误差,成像剖面难以反映实际构造形态;平滑后的偏移速度误差对最小二乘逆时偏移影响远小于偏移速度的系统误差,适当平滑可改善成像质量,但是过分平滑会影响成像质量;最小二乘逆时偏移能够压制部分噪声,但随着地震记录中噪声增强,弱反射逐渐被淹没,难以反映地下构造形态。

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马振
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关键词 最小二乘逆时偏移速度误差信噪比速度平滑叠前深度偏移成像误差    
Abstract

With the increasingly refined and complicated exploration and development goals,the least-squares inverse-time migration based on inversion theory has gradually become the current development trend.In order to make the least-squares reverse-time migration better for the exploration and development of oil and gas reservoirs,analyzing the imaging effects under different conditions helps to guide the processors to make appropriate adjustments in the actual data processing.For this reason,in view of the migration velocity error and the noise in seismic data in the actual exploration process,the authors made a comparative study of the imaging effects of least-squares reverse-time migration under different conditions.The results show that,in the case of systematic errors in migration velocity,the imaging depth of interface will have errors,and it is difficult for the imaging profile to reflect the actual structure;the influence of smoothed migration velocity errors on least-squares reverse-time migration is much smaller than the systematic error of migration velocity,and proper smoothing can improve the imaging quality,but excessive smoothing can affect the imaging quality;the least-squares reverse-time migration can suppress part of the noise;nevertheless,as the noise in the seismic record increases,the weak reflection gradually cannot be resolved,and it is difficult to reflect the underground structure.

Key wordsleast-squares reverse-time migration    velocity error    signal-to-noise ratio    velocity smoothing    prestack depth migration    imaging error
收稿日期: 2019-05-27      出版日期: 2020-04-22
ZTFLH:  P631.4  
基金资助:国家自然科学基金项目(41874153);国家科技重大专项(2016ZX05006-002-003)
作者简介: 马振(1994-),男,硕士研究生,主要从事深度域偏移成像方面的研究工作。Email: mazhen0214@foxmail.com
引用本文:   
马振, 孙成禹, 彭鹏鹏, 姚振岸. 速度误差和地震噪声对最小二乘逆时偏移的影响分析[J]. 物探与化探, 2020, 44(2): 329-338.
Zhen MA, Cheng-Yu SUN, Peng-Peng PENG, Zhen-An YAO. An analysis of the influence of velocity error and seismic noise on least squares reverse-time migration. Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration, 2020, 44(2): 329-338.
链接本文:  
http://www.wutanyuhuatan.com/CN/10.11720/wtyht.2020.1295      或      http://www.wutanyuhuatan.com/CN/Y2020/V44/I2/329
Fig.1  Marmousi模型
Fig.2  精确偏移速度成像结果
a—逆时偏移;b—最小二乘逆时偏移
Fig.3  不同系统误差偏移速度的最小二乘逆时偏移成像结果
a—偏移速度减小5%;b—偏移速度增加5%
Fig.4  不同系统误差偏移速度的逆时偏移成像结果
a—偏移速度减小5%;b—偏移速度增加5%
Fig.5  不同偏移速度误差下归一化数据残差收敛曲线对比
Fig.6  不同平滑程度的Marmousi模型
a—真实速度(e=0%);b—偏移速度模型1(e=2.7%);c—偏移速度模型2(e=5.24%);d—偏移速度模型3(e=7.28%)
Fig.7  不同平滑程度的偏移速度最小二乘逆时偏移成像结果
a—速度未做平滑;b—e=2.7%的平滑速度;c—e=5.24%的平滑速度;d—e=7.28%的平滑速度
Fig.8  不同平滑程度的偏移速度逆时偏移成像结果
a—速度未做平滑;b—e=2.7%的平滑速度;c—e=5.24%的平滑速度;d—e=7.28%的平滑速度
Fig.9  不同平滑程度偏移速度下归一化数据残差收敛曲线对比
Fig.10  加入不同程度噪声的地震记录
a—原始地震记录;b—ns=5的地震记录;c—ns=1的地震记录
Fig.11  不同含噪地震记录最小二乘逆时偏移成像结果
Fig.12  不同含噪地震记录逆时偏移成像结果
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